The basis of most graphic design is tyopraphy. This involves the selection and arrangement of visual images(words and illustrations) to make a pleasing presentation. These visual image have impact upon the viewer; therefore, it is essential to develop a good layout of visual materials. To succeed as a graphic designer, you must apply the fundamentals of design.
The basic design elements are: lines, shapes, mass, texture, and color.
Lines the first design element, lines, can take many different forms. Sometimes, the lines are loose and free or they can be straight and sharp. Repetition of lines also creates patterns and this adds an emotional impact to the visual image. Lines can be used to give the printed image a “personality”
Lines can also be used as forms of a “universal language” in communication. In this instance, the lines are used to create a message. Arrow and other symbols are an example of this visual form.
Lines are often used to enhance or change the value of type style. As shown earlier, lines can be very harsh or they might be very delicate. They play a very important role in planning a layout for effective communication.
Shape Shape is a design element or form concerned with specific areas of space. Many times, shape is defined by a line. The three basic shapes are the square, circle, and triangle.
A psychological meaning has been associated with each of these shapes. these include:
1, The attitude related to the triangle is one of ONFLICTS or action.
2, The circle gives a feeling of PROTECTION or inifinity.
3, The square reflects an attitude of HONESTY or equality.
Mass mass adds a sense of volume to shapes that are commonly found in visual presentation. The mass or solid, plus the shape, tend to give relationship with other elements.
Different shapes of verying intensities or “weight”, can be used to emphasize or de-emphasize type styles or implications, Physical forms are made by combining the three basic shapes.
Texture When we try to measure texture, the first reaction is to touch the surface. In graphic communications, this element is usually visual and no reaction would be received through the same of touch.
Texture is considered when the visual images reflect the meaning of lines, or when mass forms images that give shape and reflect a special technique.
Texture in typography will vary and will depend upon the structure and weight of the individual letters, the amount of space between lines, and the amount of mass in certain space.
Actual texture can be produced by embossing. A shape or irregular surface is pressed into the substrate.
Color color is an important element to be considered when planning or designing a printed product. It can draw attention and have a strong emotional and psychological impact on the reader. Color also has traditional and symbolic meanings. It is essential that you have a basic understanding of this element.
Color moods. Yellow, orange, and red are considered to be “warm” colors and also often denote aggression, excitements, and danger. Red is considered the most active of these three. Blue, green, and violet are considered to be “cool” colors and are associated with nature and passivensess. Experiments with animals exposed to different colors have shown that there are different emotional reactions colors.
Color should be used to add interest and to reduce boredom. A small amount of color can eliminate the possibility of having a monotonous page.
Color wheel. The color wheel is a tool that can help to understand the basics of color. The color wheel provides a means of identifying color in a consistent manner.
Primary and secondary colors. The color wheel is based on three primary colors from which all other colors can be made. The three primary colors are: red, yellow, and blue. Mixing any two of these colors will produce a secondary color. The secondary colors are: green, orange, and violet.
Complementary colors. Complementary colors are those colors that are across from each other on the color wheel. Red and green, orange and blue, yellow and violet are complementary colors.