Even before primitive man developed spoken language, he was able to communicate by grunting, laughing, frowning, screaming, and by using physical force. In these and other ways he made his message clear to others.
As time went on, man developed other ways of communicating. He learned to mark trails with piles of stones or cuts on trees. He discovered how to control fire and use smoke to signal others. He learned to communicate through a spoken language. And then he learned to write.
The evolution of writing. Writing made it possible to record information. It also made it possible to send message over great distances without direct contact. Most important, though, it enabled man to transmit knowledge to future generations.
Pictographs. Evidence of man’s early attempts at writing can be found on the walls of caves 30000 years old, The writing was in the form of pictures paited in cave walls. These paintings are called pictographs.
Ideographs. As man’s need to communicate grew, picture writing gave way to idea writing. Pictures began to take on abstract meanings. Instead of representing the objects pictured, the pictures took on new meanings. They began to represent the feeling or idea that each was supposed to suggest. Graphic symbols that represent ideas are called ideographs.
Hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics are a form of ideograph. They are highly sophisticated renderins perfected by the Egyptians around 2500 B.C. Each picture represents an idea, not a sound as modern letters do.
Cuneiform writing. The ancient assyrians, Chaldeans, and Egyptians used wedgeshaped letters. Originally these letters were cut by chisel into stone. Later letters were pressed into clay tablets with small brass or copper punches. This form of writing is called cuneiform.
The alphabet. The alphabet as we know it today is based on an early Phoenician system used around 1500 B.C. The Greeks adopted this system of writing about 1000 B.C. The Roman alphabet, which we use today, is based on the Greek adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet.
Developing communication technology.
Writing is an essential part of graphic communications. It enabled our ancestors to communicated with others without the need for direct contact. Writing allowed them to record their history, their art, their science, their knowledge and their skills. It allowed our ancestors to communicate with future generations.
To advance the communications process, limitations had to be overcome. Ways had to be found for reproducing serveral copies of a message without having to rewrite the message each time. Writing and printing materials, such as inks, had to be invented and developed.
The communication process
One way to understand a complicated machine like an automobile or computer is to look at its parts. Once we understand each part, we can study how they all go together. We can use this same approach to look at a complex event or process. Communication is one such process.
A communication model. Communication is the process of conveying a message from one person or group of people to another. Like the automobile, the communication process cosists of some basic parts. The drawing presented is an attampt to identify these basic parts and to present them in simple form.
The term model as we are using it here means”a simplified representation of the communication process” the model describes the major parts of communication and how they go together.
Source. Someone must initiate the communication process. Whoever initiates the process is called the source.
Need. the source initates the process because there is a need to communicate. For example, the need or purpose may be to inform, influence, stimulate, question, or entertain.
Message, A message is the product of the communication process. It is the information transmitted from a source to a receiver. The message consists of an organized sequence of symbols and signals desgigned to convey a desired meaning. When signals or symbols are groupled or arranged to convey desired information(the message), they form a code.
Vehicle. Information in the form of a coded message is transmitted from source to receiver by means of a vechicle. The vehicle is simply the carrier of the information. It is the link between source and receiver on which a message travels. Examples of vehicles include air, wire, space, tape,etc.
The pairing of a message wth an appropriate vehicle results in the formation of a communications medium.
Receiver. The vehicle carries the source’s message to anoter person or audience. The person or audience receiving the message is called the receiver.
Feedback. The way in which the receiver reacts to the message lets the source know whether or not his communication was successful. We call the receiver’s reaction feedback because it is fed back to the source.
Interference. Negatiive feedback or total lack of feedback from the receiver could indicate that certain conditions interfered with successful communication. For example, a transistor radio blasting in your ear might interfere with your ability to concentrate and successfully complete your work. A condition that interferes with communication is called interference.
Graphic communication use printed images to convey message. Newspapers, book, magazines, catalogs, greeting cards, labels and business foms communicate graphically.
A sender must convert his thoughts and ideas to visual form in order to communicate graphically. Symbols, drawing, and photographs are available for this purpose